The granting of a pardon for past offenses including, for example, political offenses, human rights violations and war crimes.

Arbitration Hearing

The scheduled meeting of the parties and Arbitrator(s) for the purpose of taking evidence and testimony to reach and resolve the dispute leading to a binding Arbitration Award.

Arbitration Award

A binding award issued by an Arbitrator establishing the final rights and obligations of the parties. A judgment may be entered for enforcement in a public court pursuant to the rules of the relevant jurisdiction for enforcement of arbitral awards. 

Arbitration Agreement

Any written agreement between the parties to resolve a dispute, claim or controversy through binding Arbitration.


A formal adversarial hearing before a neutral, called the arbitrator, with a relaxed evidentiary standard.  The arbitrator is usually a subject matter expert.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

A full range of problem-solving dispute resolution processes - between direct negotiation to litigation - wherein a neutral professional assists the parties in reaching an amicable solution, a binding agreement or other resolve to a dispute.