A process in which the participants to a dispute present arguments and evidence to a neutral who makes a determination as to the facts of the dispute, but who does not make any finding or recommendations as to outcomes for resolution.


Framing is the process of defining what a problem is about.


Force refers to any situation where either party to the dispute is made to do something against their will through threat or coercion.


A collaborative process by which a neutral party seeks to assist a group of individuals or other parties to discuss constructively a number of complex, potentially controversial issues. The facilitator plays a less active role than a mediator in a facilitation process.