Brad Spangler

Brad Spangler
Brad Spangler is an Associate at Resolve in Washington, D.C. His primary area of interest is public policy dispute resolution. Brad Spangler is a contributor to Beyond Intractability which is an online “encyclopedia” compiling easy-to-understand essays on almost 400 topics which explain the dynamics of conflict along with available options for promoting more constructive approaches.

The Difference Between Conflicts and Disputes

Most people probably do not recognize a distinct difference between the terms “conflict” and “dispute.” However, many conflict scholars do draw a distinction between the two terms. As is unfortunately common in this field, different scholars define the terms in...

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Conflicts and Disputes

The Difference Between "Conflicts" and "Disputes"Most people probably do not recognize a distinct difference between the terms "conflict" and "dispute." However, many conflict scholars do draw a distinction between the two terms. As is unfortunately common in this...

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00-Creating and Claiming Value

What Does it Mean to Create or Claim Value?Creating and claiming value are two of the most fundamental aspects of negotiation strategy that exist in tension with one another. In any negotiation, the parties must decide whether to be competitive, cooperative, or some...

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Convening Processes

What is Convening?Convening is the first stage in conflict intervention. Its role, as the name implies, is to bring disputants to a preliminary meeting where they will discuss the issues of a conflict and consider options for its resolution. Its goal is to pave the...

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Caucus

What is a Caucus?Caucuses are meetings that mediators hold separately with each side of a dispute. They can be called by the mediator or by one of the parties to work out problems that occur during the mediation process.Sometimes there are external factors that...

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Costing

What is Costing?"I never...went under the illusion that I could appeal to their higher good. That may come, that might be what brings them along further, but it's not going to be what gets them to engage (in mediation). The thing that's going to get them to engage is...

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Reality Testing

What is Reality Testing?Reality testing involves "techniques used to adjust perceptions that do not conform to the realities of the situation."[1] In conflict resolution, it is a process that may be helpful when negotiations breakdown. Sometimes, a party to a...

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Consensus Building

What is Consensus Building?Consensus building (also known as collaborative problem solving or collaboration) is a conflict-resolution process used mainly to settle complex, multiparty disputes. Since the 1980s, it has become widely used in the environmental and public...

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Option Identification

Identifying OptionsOption identification is an essential step in the process of resolving any conflict, including seemingly intractable situations. In a conflict resolution scenario, once all parties to the conflict have identified the issues under contention, they...

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