Much has been written about the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. One perspective put forth by a leading researcher on face theories, Stella Ting-Toomey, is that the negotiation came down to how both sides could retreat to more peaceful positions without losing face, or causing loss of face for each other. 


In the early 1930s, millions of Ukranians died under Stalin’s violent policy of forced collectivization. The depths of pain, fear, and hatred that continued to characterize the Ukrainian attitude toward Russians in the 1990s is typical of all victimized people and groups. Montville, a prominent scholar of victimhood and its effect on conflict resolution, described the relationship between Ukrainians and Soviet Russians as a “gaping, unhealed wound.”