Negotiation Glossary

Click on any of the letters below to learn more… Note that we’ll continue to update the glossary.

A

Abilene Paradox

The Abilene paradox is a concept that evaluates people’s usual aversion to conflict and the paradox of needing to disagree to create space to agree. It’s the paradox of people avoiding that which will create the space for negotiation.
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Acceptance Time

Acceptance time is the amount of time that a party or person will need to accept the change that will come to the negotiated agreement. This is important because it will normally take extra time to negotiate .
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Agenda

Most negotiations will have a set of questions that will need to be answered between the parties. An agenda is a plan for how to proceed with the negotiation to accomplish these questions.
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Agree In Principle

This is an agreement between the parties regarding the situation moving forward but does not resolve all of the issues that are being negotiated. It will often be an interim agreement that exists in good faith that a final agreement will be reached.
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Anchor Point

A high or low starting point that one or both parties present to pull the negotiation in their direction.

Anchoring

The process of using an anchor, or an opening position, and sticking to it strongly for some time. This is usually outside of the aspiration point or desired outcome so that the parties have room to work into that bargaining zone.

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Arbitrator

An arbitrator is a neutral third party that will hear evidence and makes a decision called an award in arbitration. Arbitration is a way to resolve a dispute if the parties are unable to reach an agreement in negotiation.
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Aspiration Point

An aspiration point is a settlement that a person would like to achieve. It is less of the final goal and more of an option if everything goes well.
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Aspiration Level

The aspiration level is the level where a negotiator would like to be and combines the negotiator’s comfortability and needs. This creates the opening offers for negotiation, and it sets the tone for what they can accomplish.
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Association

Association is the tactic of using one’s connections to others to gain traction in a negotiation. This is often used in companieswith powerful people involved.
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Auctions

Auctions are events where the buyers compete with each other rather than the seller to achieve a price for themselves.

Authority

Authority is the ability to make decisions that affect the outcome of the negotiation. A party must have the authority to agree to the terms.
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B

Bargaining

Bargaining is the back-and-forth negotiation over a single term. This can be the whole negotiation, or it may happen over one term. It is most frequently seen when the parties are negotiating price.
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Bargaining Zone

The bargaining zone is the zone between the resistance points for both parties.

BATNA

BATNA stands for “best alternative to a negotiated agreement.” A BATNA is what a party plans to do with the dispute if they cannot reach an agreement in the negotiation.
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Bad Guy

A bad guy is part of the good guy/bad guy routine that some negotiators will use to try and force the desired outcome. Typically, the bad guy will not be in the room and will be rejecting offers and insisting on more/less money.
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Better Product Approach

This is a tactic used in negotiation over the sale of goods where the buyer will offer an upgraded product with a higher price to test how much money the buyer has to spend.
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Big Order Approach

This is a tactic used frequently in sales negotiation where the buyer offers to make a larger purchase to attempt to drive the price down per item.
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Black Hat – White Hat

This is a similar concept to the good guy/bad guy routine except the same negotiator will vacillate between being tough and unyielding to generous.
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Blind Spot

Parties will often encounter a spot in a negotiation where they miss an opportunity because they either do not see the quality because of poor information or perspective on the issue.
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Bluffing

Bluffing is a tactic where one party pretends to agree or disagree with something because it will make it seem like they are in a better negotiating position than they are.
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Body Language

Body language is the nonverbal cues that help assess how the other party is feeling and responding to the issues.
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BPA

BPA stands for “best possible agreement,” which is the option that will give all parties what they need to walk away happy.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a technique where the parties outline any possible options that they can come up with while choosing not to judge any of these options. It helps the parties get all of the options on the table and possibly come up with a new idea.
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Brinkmanship

Brinkmanship is the act of holding onto a high-risk position where there is little room for agreement. This can either force the other parties to move or can make the negotiation fall apart quickly.
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Bulwarism

This is similar to the take it or leave it approach. The first party will make an offer that is a final offer and will not move from that.
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Buy-In

Buy-in is when one party can convince others to join their position or support what they are hoping for. They get others to “buy in” to their idea.
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C

Caucus

A caucus is a temporary separation of the parties to either speak with others who have the authority or for the parties to discuss the options within a team. This is most frequently used in mediation, but can be used in any negotiation
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Capitulate

To capitulate is to agree or consider terms that one previously resisted.
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Change The Participants

This is a tactic that can be used to break a deadlock or impasse. The parties introduce additional participants that change the game and can help the parties move.
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Change The Standards

Similar to changing the participants, changing the standards is a way to mix up the negotiations by changing the specifications that have been used in the negotiations.
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Cherry-Picking

Cherry-picking is a tactic where one of the parties accepts pieces of an offer that they like and rejects those that they do not. This type of negotiation should be met with linking tactics.
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Chicken Tactic

The chicken tactic is a way of testing whether a party is desperate to settle by offering a last-and-final offer and seeing if they will accept it.
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Coalition

A coalition is an agreement between two parties in a multiparty negotiation where the parties agree to work together in negotiations against others. This typically happens when the goals of these parties align in a way that makes bargaining for a similar position ideal.
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Cognitive Balance

Cognitive balance is the idea that when people like the same thing, they will often like other similar things. This can also apply to things that people do not like.
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Collectivism Culture Negotiator

This is a negotiator that works to achieve a purpose for the group rather than individuals. The need to belong in this group is a driving factor for the parties.
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Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining is a special kind of negotiating between a union and an employer. This typically concerns the needs and desires of the union employees, such as wages, time off, and safety measures.
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Common Goals

Common goals are goals that are shared between the parties. Finding these commonalities help the parties see that they are not as far apart as they thought and can help them work together.
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Competition

This is a tactic that threatens to not only walk away from a sale but to take the money to a competitor and gain the upper hand there.

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Competitive Negotiator

The competitive negotiator is looking to gain as much from the negotiations as possible while minimizing what the other party gains.
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Compromise

A compromise results when both parties make concessions to reach an agreement and neither party gets what they want.
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Concession

A concession is a move by one party that is not matched by the other. When both parties move, that would be a trade or a compromise. When only one party moves, this is a concession.
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Condorcet Paradox

This is the idea that as time goes on, the solutions that will be proposed later will have more of a likelihood to stick. This means that skilled negotiators will hold onto desired options until near the end of the negotiation.
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Conflict Bias

Conflict bias is a reaction to the way that the parties view the other within their conflict. It can create conflict that is not a part of the issue because of the biases with which they see each other. It is common to make the other party out to be a boogeyman when in conflict.
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Consensus

A consensus is the result of all parties reaching an agreement on a term.
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Considered Response

A considered response is thought through carefully and is not returned immediately after the other party speaks. It is not reactionary.
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Consistency Principle

The consistency principle is the idea that both oneself and others need to appear consistent in beliefs, feelings, and behaviors.
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Convergence Principle

This is the idea that the styles of the negotiators will become the same as the negotiation moves on, usually toward the more competitive option.
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Cooling Off Period

Emotions and power struggles will often create a bubble of anger or emotion in the negotiation. This means that the parties will need to need time to cool off or let their emotions settle, during the negotiation, and this time may need to be built into the negotiation.
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Cooperative Negotiator

A cooperative negotiator works to help find the best solution for all involved.
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Counteroffer

A counteroffer is a party’s answer to another’s offer. This will usually change some terms and keep others that the parties can agree on. This offer will reject the initial offer.
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Crunch

A crunch is a response to an offer that does not counteroffer but asks for certain concessions or to move in a certain way to continue the negotiation.
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Creative Concession

Creative concessions are concessions that add value for all parties. It is often a low-risk concession that ends up adding a lot of value to the other party. It helps the parties be creative and gain ground.
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Cultural Bias

Every person has a culture of some kind that will influence how they view the negotiation and other negotiators. This bias will impact how the negotiation moves forward. Nonlinear Approach: For some cultures, different ideas and processes do not move linearly as they might in some other cultures. Those in linear cultures may see this type of thinking as a tactic, while in reality, it may be a result of a person’s culture.

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Cultural Influence

Cultural influence is the idea that culture, the ideas, views, and beliefs that a person grew up around, will influence the way they negotiate. This may be the case, but negotiators can also learn behaviors to overcome aspects of their culture or learn when to use them to their advantage.

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D

Dancers

Dancers are a role played by a team member when a team is negotiating. The dancer talks about things that matter very little to the negotiation but take up time. They distract from the real issues.
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Deadlines

Deadlines are a tactic that parties will use to put pressure on the other side. These deadlines are often arbitrary and do not need to be met.
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Deadlock

A deadlock is another name for an impasse or a time in the negotiation where neither party is willing to move, so they cannot make any headway in negotiations. This can end negotiations.
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Decoys

A decoy is an offer or position that is not true, but it affects the receiving party’s interests in some way, especially when it is withdrawn. This tactic often offers something that is meant to be taken back.
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Default Tactic

The default tactic is used to attempt to alter the agreement after the fact. It provides one side with extras that they did not agree to. This puts that party on the offensive to reject the extras or alter the agreement and accept them.

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Defensive Deception

Defensive deception is a tactic that accepts deception from the other party and expects them to do the same. It may not gain anything in a negotiation, so it should be used sparingly.
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Delays

Delays are the opposite of deadlines in that they intentionally require more time when the opposition needs to finish the negotiation. This puts pressure on that side to reach an agreement quickly by giving more for the sake of time.
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Deliberate Mistakes

Deliberate mistakes are mistakes made by one party that the other party knows are mistakes based on discussions but allows it in the agreement anyway.

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Devil’s Advocate

This is a tactic that some people will use in preparation to prepare for scenarios that the other side might throw their way. The person stepping into the role of the other side tries to be particularly ruthless or overwhelming to prepare for the worst possible situation.
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Diminishing Marginal Utility

This is the idea that the more that a person gets in a situation, the less excited they will be about a small win they would have been very excited about the earlier one.
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Direct Communication Style

Direct communication style is the ability of one party to be honest and truthful about their feelings toward the other. It promotes efficiency, but it can overstep sensitivities.
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Disassociation

This is the opposite of association. Instead of relying on connections, this tactic uses the lack of connections to a certain party to sway the negotiation in their direction.
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Disorder Tactic

This is a tactic where a negotiator uses purposeful confusion to throw off the other party and send the negotiation off the rails to gain the upper hand.
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Distributive Negotiation

Distributive negotiation is a negotiation where one party loses for another to gain. These types of negotiations are based on one pot of money or one item. For every dollar that one party gets, the other party loses that dollar, and there are little to no options to add value in other ways.
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Divide And Conquer

This is used in complex, multi-issue negotiation to divide the issues into categories and conquer them one by one. This can sometimes work for the parties, but occasionally, parties will need to rely on the outcome of one issue to decide where they stand on another.
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Doorknob Price

This is another name for the lowest price acceptable, but it typically refers to the price that one party will tell another is their lowest price. It implies that the receiving party may either accept, or they will be touching the doorknob on their way out.
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Dossier

A dossier is a prepared collection of information on a person or group, which is often complied with before a negotiation to help aid in the negotiations.
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Dry Well

This is a tactic used to demonstrate that one party has nothing or very little left to give. Their “well” has dried up.
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Dyadic Negotiation

Dyadic negotiation is a negotiation between two opposing parties.
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E

Egalitarianism Culture

This type of negotiation starts everyone on an equal playing field regardless of status and treats everyone the same.
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Emotional Outbursts

Negotiations, especially personal ones, can often involve topics that bring up a lot of emotion for the parties. People react to their emotions in different ways, and it is not easy for negotiators to react well in the face of emotions. Emotional outbursts are moments where one party reacts to something emotionally.
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Empty Pockets

This is an admission that a party is out of options and has nothing left to give.
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End Run

An end run requires one party to go around an uncooperative party and gain approval from someone with higher authority. This tactic can be effective, but it does interfere with trust between the parties.
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Equity Rule

This is the idea that you get out of the negotiation what you put in. Some negotiators will work from this principle to help accomplish an equitable result.
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Escalating Demand

This is a tactic that requires to be given as much as they have given. It puts pressure on the other side to be particular about what they accept knowing that they will have to give something of equal value.
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Escalation

Escalation is a sudden rise in the intensity or offers that may occur as the negotiation goes on. It is typically not expected by the other party.
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Escape Trap

This is a tactic a negotiator may use if they sense that their opponents would not respond well to hostility. Everyone seeks to remove themselves from unpleasant situations, so this tactic requires being openly hostile to see if it will force the other party into a terrible decision to escape the negotiation.
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Expanding The Pie

Expanding the pie is a technique that is often used in impasse situations or in distributive bargaining where the parties will identify other interests or options that may be at play and use them to gain leverage in other areas.
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Experts

Experts are people who have the skills and experience to speak on a topic in a way that is taken as fact. They can help the parties understand complex areas of negotiation.
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Expressive Communication Style

Expressive communication style values the use of emotion to convey what one needs and sees sterile communication as a red flag and untrustworthy.
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F

Fait Accompli Tactic

Fait accompli means a thing finished. This tactic is used by negotiators as a way to stand firm on something claiming that it has been accomplished.
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Falling In Love Trap

This happens when one party hears scenarios that they would like and stick with them, even if it is no longer a possibility.
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Fishing

This is a tactic where one party will throw out an idea and see if the other will bite.
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Flinch

This is a body language reaction to an offer followed by a period of waiting to see how the other side will react to the reaction.
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Forked Tail Effect

This effect takes place when one party harms the other in some way and the other party sees them as that person continuously.
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Fragmentation

Fragmentation is the division of issues within a multi-issue negotiation to help the parties address simple issues first and then move on to the more difficult issues after establishing the ability to agree.
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Framing

Framing is an organizational process that helps the negotiator orient themselves within the bigger picture and understand the issues that affect them.
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Front-Page Test

This is a way to test one’s ethics in a negotiation. It involves asking if a person would be comfortable if their actions or words were printed on the front page of the local newspaper. It can help bring to light issues that would be easy to brush aside in private.
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Funny Money

Funny money is the process of stating amounts of money in percentages or fractions of a whole. This can be helpful to put dollar amounts in perspective, but it can be easy to get confused if a party is not translating these values in their mind and understanding the dollar amount attached.
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G

Golden Rule

This is the idea that you should only do to others what you would want them to do to you. This can be a reasonable question to ask oneself in negotiations when considering a move that may make one uncomfortable if someone else did it to them.
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Good Guy

This is the other half of the good guy-bad guy routine. This part of the routine is the one who is more willing to give but usually has to check with the bad guy, who will temper the offers or agreement. It can shift the blame off the person in the negotiation and help encourage good feelings and collaboration.
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H

Haggling

Haggling is an intense back and forth negotiation where the parties do not stop until they reach an agreement or walk away. This type of negotiation is typically characterized by a lack of relationship between the parties.
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Halo Effect

The halo effect is the opposite of the forked-tail effect. When a party feels that another is trustworthy, they are more likely to work with them and trust what is said, even to their detriment.
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Hidden Agenda

This is an interest or goal that a party would like to accomplish, but they shield this need or want from the other party as a tactic to achieve it.
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Hierarchical Culture

A hierarchical culture is the antithesis of the egalitarian culture. In hierarchical cultures, each person has a specific place and rank and should be treated as such. It can be difficult to negotiate between ranks, as preference will often be given to the higher rank.
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Highball

To highball means to start the negotiations with an incredibly high number and hope that the price or number stays near that. It is similar to anchoring at the beginning of a negotiation.
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Higher Authority Tactic

This is the tactic that will defer to a higher authority to make decisions. Some negotiators will deliberately go to negotiation with limited authority because it allows them to place blame for final decisions on someone else and helps make the negotiator look more agreeable.

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Hot Buttons

Hot buttons are topics or ideas that are designed to elicit an emotional response in another party. This can be used in negotiation to make someone move based on emotions, but it should not be used frequently if at all.
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Hypothetical

A hypothetical is a fictional scenario that imagines different ways that the proposed resolution could play out and helps the parties find a creative solution that they may not have considered without it.
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I

I Think I Can Get It For You Approach

This is a tactic used by sellers to find out what a buyer is willing to pay for an item by suggesting that they will be able to get it for them at the right price and then suggesting something more expensive that is available as an alternative.
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Impasse

An impasse is a period of bargaining where neither party is willing to move. It stops all progress on the negotiation until it is moved.
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Incremental Conversion

This is a tactic where one party in a multi-party negotiation will approach each of the other parties individually and see if they can convince them until the whole group is convinced or enough are convinced to sway the whole group.
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Incubation

This is an approach that some negotiators will take to attempt to get past an impasse or other issue that they are facing. It lets the last offers sit with each negotiator, and as they think about them on the break, they may figure out a solution.
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Indirect Communication Style

Indirect communication style relies heavily on politeness and evasion, even within a business setting. However, this tactic is used with the understanding between the parties that they are employing a diplomatic strategy.
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Individualistic Culture Negotiator

This is a person who only cares about what they can gain for themselves and does not advocate for fair or equal ideas unless it benefits them somehow.
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Integrative Agreements

Integrative agreements are those that have included all of the issues that are affecting the parties and included them in the agreement.
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Integrative Negotiating

Integrative negotiating is another name for win-win negotiating, where the parties work together to achieve a mutually beneficial agreement. It is the antithesis of distributive bargaining.
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Interests

Interests are a party’s wants, needs, and desires that exist underneath the outward goals that the party is putting forth. These will often drive the way that a party communicates and negotiates.
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Interest-Based Negotiating

Interest-based negotiation allows the parties to share their interests and come to a solution that addresses the whole conflict, not just the surface-level issues that need to be addressed.

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Interim Trade

An interim trade is a trade that happens during the negotiation that may not make its way into the agreement, but that affects the ways that the parties negotiate moving forward.
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Intersection Maneuver

This is the idea that negotiations, especially in deals between companies and contractors, will often overlap based on the interests of the parties. These contracts can often be used against one another for leverage. Finding these intersections will allow the parties to use these skills effectively moving forward.
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Issue Surprise

This is a tactic to slow down negotiation where a party introduces issues that have not been addressed and likely do not need to be addressed in the negotiation to cause confusion and force the parties to slow down.
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Issues

The issues are the concerns that need to be addressed, discussed, decided, and agreed upon within the negotiation.
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L

Last And Final Offer

Making a last-an-final offer usually does not mean that it is exactly what the party is willing to settle for. It often means that the party needs the others to make a move that is farther in their direction than the parties are currently offering.
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Leading Questions

A leading question is a question that holds the answers to the question. By asking a question a certain way, there is only one possible answer to the question.
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Leaking Information

Leaking information means letting the other side “discover” information that seems secret. It can sometimes help move the discussion forward.
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Least Acceptable Result

This is the lowest amount that a party will accept with an agreement. If the negotiations go below this, they will likely walk away from the table.
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Least Effort Principle

This is the idea that people will often choose an option that they do not have to work as hard for, even if it is not a great deal. This means that presenting ideas as the easier option for the other party may encourage a settlement.
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Leaving Money On The Table

This is a result of poor negotiating that leaves options that both parties could have grasped on the table. It results in both parties leaving unhappily.
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Legitimacy

Legitimacy is added when the parties present written documents or other evidence to support their position. When the position gains legitimacy, it can be more difficult to argue against.
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Limited Authority

Limited authority results from one person present at a negotiation not having full ability to agree and barter. This means that they may not have permission to agree if the negotiation moves farther away from the initial considerations. This limited authority may be actual or a party may feign limited authority to gain in the negotiation.
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Limits

Limits are parameters a party places on certain issues to stop the negotiations from going beyond this limit on a particular issue or instance.
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Linking

Linking refers to the practice o connecting aspects of an agreement or deal to another. A party may offer to concede in one aspect if they gain in another. If movement on one requires movement on the other, the issues are linked.
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Little Shot Complex

This is the idea that a party may undersell their shot at having a successful negotiation by paying too much attention to the shortcomings of their position.
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Logrolling

Logrolling is the idea that the parties will trade concessions to capitalize on the concessions of others. As the parties begin to trade effectively, the parties can find more things to agree on.
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Lose-Lose Negotiation

This is a negotiation where both parties walk away disappointed. This is often the result of the parties failing to find other interests to use.
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Low Ball

To low ball means to propose an offer that is drastically low and see if the other party will be fooled into cooperating with the number. It can be a ruthless tactic if the receiving party ends up folding, but it can start the negotiations off on the wrong foot.
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Lying

Lying is deliberately saying something other than the truth. Knowing when a party is lying can be helpful for the parties in negotiation to find ways around it.
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M

Magical Math

This is a tactic where a party uses a lot of numbers and financial information to support their position, even if a thorough analysis would not support such an offer.
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Mandated Authority

This is a tactic that requires that any final agreement be approved by an authority other than the person at the negotiation. It is a way to tactically slow down the negotiations and help buy time.
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Maximum Supportable Position

This is the highest point in the negotiations will be able to meet their goals.
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Merit-Based Rule

This is the idea that what one person puts in, they get out of the situation. Whatever is contributed to the overall goal is what each negotiator takes home.
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Message Tuning

This is the idea of changing a message to fit the person that is receiving it. It needs to be done carefully in multi-party negotiations so that the parties do not distort the message amidst each other.
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Missing Person Maneuver

This is a tactic where the decisionmaker for a team disappears right before a final agreement is reached. This buys time for that team to try and get a new deal.
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Moral Appeal

This is the concept of attaching a moral value to a proposal suggesting that it is the fair or right option. This can make it hard for people to disagree with you.
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Multi-Party Negotiation

A multi-party negotiation is a negotiation between more than two parties.
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N

Name Dropping

Name dropping is similar to association. It is the act of talking about associations to develop feelings of wanting to associate with people who know important people.
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Needs-Based Rule

This is the idea that the way the resources are distributed should be based on the relative needs of the parties.
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Negative Bargaining Zone

This is when the zone of possible agreement does not overlap at all and the parties areboth arguing against the best and worst of the other.
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Negotiating Gambit

Gambits are the tactics that people use in negotiation that should be avoided because they end up harming the negotiation rather than helping the parties reach an agreement.
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Negotiating Roles

Within a team of negotiators, there may be different roles that each person needs to play and stick to. These roles help accomplish the different goals that the team has and ensure that all bases are covered.
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Negotiation

Negotiation is the process of bargaining with another party or more to achieve an agreement that settles the issues between each other.
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New Information

Bringing new information into the negotiation can often encourage the parties to take steps toward each other.
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New Issue

This is a tactic where the parties will introduce a new issue that had not previously been introduced to encourage a fresh take on the other issues.
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New Player

This can include introducing a new person to the negotiation, either on a team or a whole new party. This can help move past a deadlock.
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Nibble

A nibble is a small concession from the other side that occurs right at the end of negotiation as thanks for finding a negotiated agreement. If a party receives a nibble, they should return a nibble.
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No Authority

This is a tactic where a party intentionally limits their authority and refuses to agree. It can create flexibility.
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Nonverbal Behaviors

Nonverbal behaviors are the communication that parties send to each other without speaking. This is body language that the parties rely on to see how the other parties are reacting.
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O

Offer

An offer is one of the foundations of negotiation. An offer is a proposal made by one party to the other. When a party receives an offer, they can either agree or make a counteroffer. Negotiations will rarely end with the first offer.
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Overwhelm

Overwhelming is a tactic that confuses the other side by providing too much information in a short time.
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P

Padding

This is the tactic of adding extras and treating them as essential to try and win on the things that are important to the parties.
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Packaging Of Issues

Packaging is the idea of addressing multiple issues together. It helps the parties to work with each other and find interesting solutions that combine the issues.
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Paralanguage

Paralanguage is how words are said and spoken. This can include tone, tempo, pitch, volume, and other things that affect the way something is perceived. Understanding how to notice and use this can help in the negotiation process.
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Planted Information

Similar to leaked information, this is information that is planted for the other party to discover. It can help the party feel like they discovered something that helped the negotiation and make them more willing to work.
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Poker Face

A poker face is when a party hides their feelings about the conversation by not allowing their face to react to the offers or ideas that are being presented.
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Position

A position is what a person would like to receive out of a negotiation and why they believe they are entitled to it.
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Positive Bargaining Zone

This is when the bargaining zones of the two parties overlap in some way and create a zone where the parties could agree.
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Power Of Information

This is the idea that the more information and knowledge the parties have about each other, the more effective they will be as negotiators.
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Power Of Legitimacy

The more that a party can use to bolster tier claim through evidence, documents, policies, and standards, the more power they will have in the negotiation.
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Power Of Risk Taking

This is the idea that the people who are willing to take risks in negotiations will likely be more successful because it will go against the grain.
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Power Of Silence

While having information on the other parties in power, limiting what the parties find out about you can help achieve the desired result.
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Pre-Conditioning

This is information that one-party feeds to another to help set up the conditions that they would like to have in the negotiation.
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Principle

A principle is an idea that one holds to and tries to idealize in their interactions with others.
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Principled Negotiation

Principled negotiation is a style of negotiation that focuses on the interests of the parties. It will often lead to a mutually-beneficial outcome.
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Prisoner’s Dilemma

This is the idea that focusing on one’s interests can contribute to the breakdown of collective interests.
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Probe

A probe is a question that seeks to explore options the parties could consider further and address issues that may not be as evident.
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Problem Solving Bargaining

This is a style of bargaining that focuses on working together to improve the satisfaction of each of them.
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Pseudo-Sacred Issues

This is the tactic where one party shares that some of the issues are “sacred” and can’t be touched. By projecting this, they can get other parties to move more on other issues to get the parties to move on the “sacred” issue.
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Puppy Dog

The puppy dog is a tactic used in sale negotiations similar to the process of adopting a puppy where the buyer is allowed to take home the product and try it out.
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Q

Quid-Pro-Quo

This is the idea that what one party dishes out, the other party will dish right back. It can be done positively or negatively.
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Quivering Quill

This is similar to a nibble, in that a party asks for a concession just before the agreement is signed.
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R

Rant ‘N’ Rave Negotiating Style

This is a style of negotiating where the party makes a scene to try and get the other party to make concessions to appease the outbursts.
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Rapport

This is the practice of building trust and goodwill between parties to help them find a way to work together.
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Re-Anchor Technique

This is a reactionary tactic to an early anchor by one of the parties. Once a party anchors, the other party reacts with a reciprocal anchor to minimize it.
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Reciprocity

This is the idea that one party needs to act in kind to return what the other has given them. This is often seen in mimicking concessions during the negotiation.
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Red Herring

A red herring is a tactic that distracts the other party with a fact or issue that has little importance to the negotiation but will cause the party to be distracted and possibly allow the party providing the red herring to walk away with more.
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Reinforcement Principle

Reinforcement is the process of encouraging the behavior of one party with positive encouragement. It also includes not responding to behavior that is not encouraged.
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Rejection/Retreat Tactic

This is the tactic where one party will ask for a large concession that has to be refused to follow it up with a smaller concession that the other party may be more willing to accept based on the comparison.
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Relationship-Orientated Culture

Relationship-orientated cultures will focus on the needs of the group and how a decision will affect the group. This can be important to understand during a negotiation because a person from this type of culture will need different assurances that an individualist culture.
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Renegotiation

This is the negotiation that has to happen after the initial agreement about the timing and implementation of the agreement. Every agreement will have some things that need to be worked out to put the agreement into practice.
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Resistance Point

This is the point at which a party will end negotiations and not consider anything under that point. It is at the lowest end of the range of acceptable outcomes for the party.
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Reservation Price

This is the lowest price that a party will be willing to accept in a negotiated agreement.
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Reserved Communication Style

Reserved communication style keeps their emotions in check, even in the face of emotion from the other side. Understanding this style helps negotiators know that just because a person is not reacting to the negotiation does not mean that they are not invested.
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S

Schmoozing

Schmoozing is the practice of talking with people and building relationships to attempt to win them over later on.
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Scrambled Eggs Tactic

This is a tactic where one party divides the issues into pieces so much that it confuses the other party and helps the first party get what they want.
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Settlement Range

This is the same thing as the ZOPA. It is the area of overlap in the parties’ possible ranges. It is the area where the parties could settle.
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Share Bargaining

Even in the best negotiations will reach a point where the parties are forced to give for the other to gain. This is called share bargaining.
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Shared Enemy

This can be a common occurrence in multi-party negotiations where one of the parties treats the other parties harshly and they unite against the common enemy.
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Shills

This is a test subject for one of the parties used to see what the other may want or need out of the negotiation. The shill’s identity is usually not known.
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Side Deals

This is a way for parties in a multi-party negotiation where two parties make a deal with one another on the side and that helps add value to the wider negotiation.
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Silence

Silence can be used as a tactic in negotiations to encourage one of the parties to keep talking. If a party is silent, it can cause the other party to attempt to fill the void with chatter.
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Similarity Attraction Effect

Parties tend to like those that they view as similar to themselves and those that they like. It can be a tactic to mimic the other party in one way to attempt to get a concession.
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Slicing

Slicing is similar to fragmentation and divide-and-conquer techniques, where the parties divide the issues into small pieces to attempt a resolution on the smaller pieces.
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Small Talk

Small talk is conversations that are not about the negotiation but are to help the parties get to know one another better. The commitment to learning about the different parties can help build a rapport among the parties.
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Smokescreens

Smokescreens are conversations or other distractions used to change the subject and distract from the conversation that was happening at the onset.
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Spin

Spin is the angle that one turns the conversation too. It helps them influence the other through communication.
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Split The Difference Technique

This is a tactic that is used when the parties are very close to a settlement and have a small amount that they cannot agree on. This technique will give both parties an equal share of the remaining amount.
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Squeaky Wheel

This comes from the phrase, “The squeaky wheel gets the cheese.” It comes from the idea that the loudest, most consistent out of a group will usually get their way first because they will be given what it wants to make it quiet.
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Stakeholder

A stakeholder is a person or organization that has an interest in the outcome of the negotiation because it affects their interests.
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Stalling

This is a tactic that asks for more time, even if unnecessary, to halt the negotiation and make the parties rethink their positions.
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Stonewalling

Stonewalling is a tactic where a party closes themselves off to any new ideas and demands that the last suggestion is the one to go with. This will often result in some movement on the other side, but it can often affect the relationship between the parties.
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Strategic Deadlock

The art of instituting a deadlock to test the other party’s willingness to reach an agreement and move in response.
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Straw Issues

These are side issues that a party does not want, but they act like they do so that the other parties react to these issues and give more on the issues that the party cares about.
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Sweetening The Deal

This is a tactic where one of the parties adds something extra to a concession to get what they want out of the deal in other places.
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T

Tactics

Tactics are strategies that the parties use to attempt to gain an advantage in the negotiation.
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Task-Orientated Culture

Task-orientated cultures focus on the task at hand and do not place as much value on the relationships between the parties. This is important to understand because it can limit outside influence besides the task at hand.
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Task Vs. Personal Conflict

This is the practice of separating the person from the task of negotiating with them. This means that the parties view each other as people first and negotiators second. It does not equate what a person is arguing with who they are.
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Threats

Threats are implications that something will happen to the other party if the terms are not agreed to. This happens in every negotiation because the action will be taken any time the parties do not agree.
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Time Pressures

This is pressure added to a negotiation based on an upcoming deadline. This can force the parties to make bigger concessions to appease the other and hit the deadline.
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Tirades

These are emotional outbursts that can disrupt the other party and make them concede to appease them.
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Trade-Offs

Trade-offs are concessions on the promise that the party will gain something from the concession later on.
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Triangulation

This is a series of questions all designed to interrogate the same thing to determine if someone is lying.
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Tunnel Vision

Tunnel vision is the tendency to focus on one issue to the detriment of other issues. This can cause a negotiator to lose out on a lot of other issues.
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Tying A String

This is the idea that the agreement is contingent on the other party’s agreement to a different issue.
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U

Ultimatum

An ultimatum is an instance where one of the parties threatens to walk away if the other parties do not agree to the idea.
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Unanimity Rule

This is a rule that happens in group negotiations where the parties agree that the decision must be unanimous, not by majority rule.
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Unbundling Issues

Unbundling issues means removing an issue that is causing an issue to attempt to reach an agreement on other issues.
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V

Venting

This is the practice of letting the parties address and express their emotions to attempt to move past them and on to the next thing.
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W

Walk Away

A walk-away is the lowest possible acceptable agreement for a party. This is the point at which they will “walk away.
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Walk-Out Tactic

The walk-out tactic is a tactic where one party leaves the table and refuses to return. This can force the other party to make concessions to open the negotiation back up, but it is not always a wise decision because the other party may be less willing to work with them moving forward.
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Wasted Work Principle

This principle states that the more work that the parties put into a negotiation, the less likely they will be to walk away. They do not like to waste the time and work on it if it will not pay off.
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Wince

Similar to a flinch, this is a nonverbal action that indicates how the parties feel about the proposal.
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Winner’s Curse

This will often happen after a deal is made when the party that “wins” feels that the negotiation was too easy and worries that their aspirations for the negotiation were too low.
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Win-Lose Negotiating

This is another name for distributive bargaining, where the parties are attempting to negotiate a benefit for themselves at the loss of someone else.
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Win-Win Negotiations

Win-win negotiations are negotiations where the parties are working together to achieve a solution that benefits all of the parties.
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Wooing

Wooing is similar to schmoozing, in that it encourages the other party to concede by flattery.

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Worth Analysis

A worth analysis is an examination of all of the factors that will contribute to the negotiation, not just the cost. It helps the party understand what the true worth of their position is.
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Y

You’ve Got To Do Better Than That

This is an option that indicates that you need the other party to give more without indicating how much you need.
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Z

ZOPA

ZOPA stands for the zone of possible agreement, and it is the zone between where the parties’ possible agreements overlap and where they may be able to reach an agreement.
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