The peripheral route persuasion is an indirect route or way someone can be persuaded. Persuasion is an integral part of our daily lives, whether it’s in advertising, politics, or personal relationships. There are two primary routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route.
Today, we will delve into the intricacies of peripheral route persuasion, its effectiveness, and how it impacts decision-making. While the peripheral route to persuasion differs from the central route to persuasion, both central and peripheral routes are vital to crafting a persuasive message.
Understanding Peripheral Route Persuasion
Peripheral route persuasion is a concept derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo in the 1980s. The Elaboration Likelihood Model considers that there are two distinct paths of persuasion – the central route, which focuses on logical arguments and content, and the peripheral route, which relies on superficial cues or heuristics.
The peripheral route to persuasion doesn’t require the audience to engage in deep cognitive processing. Instead, the peripheral route relies on superficial cues such as physical attractiveness, credibility, or likability of the source, the appeal of music or visuals, the number of arguments rather than their quality, emotional responses, and other positive characteristics.
The peripheral route to persuasion is often seen as a more effortless, less cognitively taxing, and less direct route. It doesn’t require individuals to analyze or critically evaluate the message presented to them. Instead, they base their decisions on superficial cues that are easy to process.
This could be the attractiveness of the person delivering the message, an appealing slogan, or even the number of people supporting a particular viewpoint.
Interestingly, while it may be an indirect route, this method can be incredibly effective in certain situations. For instance, when the subject matter is of low importance to the individual or when they are distracted or have limited time to make a decision.
In such scenarios, people are more likely to rely on these peripheral cues rather than delving deep into the argument’s substance. This aspect of human decision-making behavior is what makes peripheral route persuasion a powerful tool in many fields, including advertising and politics.
When Does Peripheral Route Persuasion Work Best?
Peripheral route persuasion tends to be most effective when the audience is not particularly interested in the topic or when they lack the motivation or ability to process the information deeply.
For instance, if someone is watching a commercial during a break in their favorite TV show, they’re likely to be influenced to attitude change more by the peripheral cues, such as the celebrity endorsing the product or the catchy jingle, rather than the actual features or benefits of the product.
Additionally, peripheral route persuasion works well when the audience is in a positive mood. Studies like the one that produced the Yale attitude change approach have shown that people are more susceptible to peripheral cues when they are feeling good, as they are less likely to critically analyze the message being presented.
This is why many advertisements aim to elicit positive emotions – be it through humor, nostalgia, or by associating the product with happy moments and experiences.
Furthermore, peripheral route persuasion can be particularly effective in creating initial interest or awareness about a product, service, or idea. While it may not necessarily lead to strong or lasting attitudes, it can be the first step in drawing the audience’s attention.
From there, more detailed and comprehensive information can be provided to further persuade them through the central route, which involves careful consideration of the arguments and evidence. This combination of both peripheral and central route persuasion can be a powerful strategy in influencing attitudes and behaviors.
The Impact of Peripheral Route Persuasion
The impact of peripheral route persuasion can be significant but typically less enduring compared to central route persuasion. That’s because the attitudes or behaviors adopted due to peripheral cues are likely to change if the cues change or if a more compelling argument is presented later.
However, peripheral route persuasion can be very effective in driving immediate action or shaping initial impressions.
However, it’s essential to note that the less permanent attitude formed through peripheral route persuasion doesn’t necessarily diminish its value. In fact, in certain situations, such as impulse buying or election campaigns, driving immediate action is precisely the goal.
The peripheral route can effectively sway people’s decisions at the moment, even if these decisions might be reconsidered or changed later.
For example, if you want to encourage young adults to vote for your candidate, peripheral routes such as attractive speakers are an easy way to affect persuasion and capitalize on basic social psychology.
Moreover, peripheral cues often play a crucial role in shaping our initial impressions, which can significantly influence subsequent interactions and decisions.
For example, a person’s attractiveness or a website’s aesthetic appeal can create a positive first impression, leading us to view subsequent information more favorably. This phenomenon, known as the ‘halo effect,’ demonstrates the powerful impact peripheral route persuasion can have on our perceptions and behaviors.
Examples of Peripheral Route Persuasion
A classic example of peripheral route persuasion is celebrity endorsements in advertising. Whether it’s a famous athlete promoting a sports drink or a popular actor endorsing a car brand, the credibility and attractiveness of the celebrity can significantly influence consumers’ attitudes toward the product.
Another common example is political campaigns. Often, voters may not have the time or inclination to delve into the intricacies of each candidate’s policies. Instead, they might base their decisions on factors such as the candidate’s charisma, the simplicity of their slogans, or their perceived trustworthiness.
Similarly, the aesthetics of product packaging can also be a form of peripheral route persuasion. Consumers often make purchasing decisions based on the visual appeal of the product packaging, especially when they lack detailed knowledge about the product or when all competing products offer similar features.
Bright colors, unique shapes, or even the feel of the packaging material can create a positive impression and persuade consumers to choose one product over another.
In the digital realm, website design is a powerful tool for peripheral route persuasion. The usability, color scheme, layout, and overall aesthetic appeal of a website can significantly influence a visitor’s decision to stay and explore or leave immediately.
A well-designed, user-friendly website can create a positive first impression and increase the likelihood of the visitor engaging with the content or taking desired actions, such as making a purchase or signing up for a newsletter.
Finally, social proof is another effective example of peripheral route persuasion. This could come in the form of customer testimonials, ratings, or the number of followers or likes on social media.
When people see that others are using and endorsing a product, service, or idea, they are more likely to view it favorably and be persuaded to adopt the same behavior. This is particularly effective because it leverages our innate tendency to conform to social norms and expectations.
While peripheral route persuasion may seem less substantive compared to the central route, it’s a powerful tool that can effectively influence attitudes and behaviors, particularly when the audience is not highly involved or motivated. Understanding and leveraging this form of persuasion can be a game-changer in fields like marketing, communication, and public relations.
Remember, though, that ethical considerations should always guide the use of persuasion. The goal should be to inform and influence, not manipulate.
If you want to learn more about the peripheral route to persuasion, alternative dispute resolution, negotiation strategies, or mediation, contact ADR Times for educational resources and training courses.